Loss of heart rate variability (HRV) and autonomic dysfunction are associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. Neuronal networks comprising brainstem and hypothalamus are involved in the “flight-or-fight” response via control over the autonomic nervous system and circulation. We hypothesized that sepsis-induced inflammation in brain regions responsible for autonomic control is associated with sympathovagal imbalance and depressed contractility. Sepsis was induced by fecal slurry injection in fluid-resuscitated rats. Sham-operated animals served as controls. Echocardiography-derived peak velocity (PV) was used to separate septic animals into good (PV ≥0.93 m/s, low 72-h mortality) and bad (PV <0.93, high 72-h mortality) prognosis. Cytokine protein levels were assessed by ELISA. All experiments were performed at 24 h post-insult. Increased levels of inflammation and oxidative injury were observed in the hypothalamus (TNF-α, IL-10, nitrite and nitrate and carbonyl groups) and brainstem (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, nitrite and nitrate and carbonyl groups) of the septic animals (p < 0.05 vs. sham), but not in the pre-frontal cortex, an area not directly implicated in control of the autonomic nervous system. Good prognosis septic animals had increased sympathetic output and increased left ventricular contractility (p < 0.05 vs. sham). There was a significant inverse correlation between high frequency power (a marker of parasympathetic outflow) and contractility (r = −0.73, p < 0.05). We found no correlation between the degree of inflammation or injury to autonomic centers and cardiovascular function. In conclusion, control of autonomic centers and cardiac function in our long-term rodent model of sepsis was related to clinical severity but not directly to the degree of inflammation.

Characterization of Brain–Heart Interactions in a Rodent Model of Sepsis

GAMBAROTTA, NICOLÒ;FERRARIO, MANUELA;
2017

Abstract

Loss of heart rate variability (HRV) and autonomic dysfunction are associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. Neuronal networks comprising brainstem and hypothalamus are involved in the “flight-or-fight” response via control over the autonomic nervous system and circulation. We hypothesized that sepsis-induced inflammation in brain regions responsible for autonomic control is associated with sympathovagal imbalance and depressed contractility. Sepsis was induced by fecal slurry injection in fluid-resuscitated rats. Sham-operated animals served as controls. Echocardiography-derived peak velocity (PV) was used to separate septic animals into good (PV ≥0.93 m/s, low 72-h mortality) and bad (PV <0.93, high 72-h mortality) prognosis. Cytokine protein levels were assessed by ELISA. All experiments were performed at 24 h post-insult. Increased levels of inflammation and oxidative injury were observed in the hypothalamus (TNF-α, IL-10, nitrite and nitrate and carbonyl groups) and brainstem (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, nitrite and nitrate and carbonyl groups) of the septic animals (p < 0.05 vs. sham), but not in the pre-frontal cortex, an area not directly implicated in control of the autonomic nervous system. Good prognosis septic animals had increased sympathetic output and increased left ventricular contractility (p < 0.05 vs. sham). There was a significant inverse correlation between high frequency power (a marker of parasympathetic outflow) and contractility (r = −0.73, p < 0.05). We found no correlation between the degree of inflammation or injury to autonomic centers and cardiovascular function. In conclusion, control of autonomic centers and cardiac function in our long-term rodent model of sepsis was related to clinical severity but not directly to the degree of inflammation.
Autonomic nervous system; Contractility; Encephalopathy; Heart rate variability; Inflammation; Sepsis; Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/1025226
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