We use the formalism of the Rényi entropies to establish the symmetry range of extremal functions in a family of subcritical Caffarelli–Kohn–Nirenberg inequalities. By extremal functions we mean functions that realize the equality case in the inequalities, written with optimal constants. The method extends recent results on critical Caffarelli–Kohn–Nirenberg inequalities. Using heuristics given by a nonlinear diffusion equation, we give a variational proof of a symmetry result, by establishing a rigidity theorem: in the symmetry region, all positive critical points have radial symmetry and are therefore equal to the unique positive, radial critical point, up to scalings and multiplications. This result is sharp. The condition on the parameters is indeed complementary of the condition that determines the region in which symmetry breaking holds as a consequence of the linear instability of radial optimal functions. Compared to the critical case, the subcritical range requires new tools. The Fisher information has to be replaced by Rényi entropy powers, and since some invariances are lost, the estimates based on the Emden–Fowler transformation have to be modified.

### Symmetry for extremal functions in subcritical Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg inequalities

#### Abstract

We use the formalism of the Rényi entropies to establish the symmetry range of extremal functions in a family of subcritical Caffarelli–Kohn–Nirenberg inequalities. By extremal functions we mean functions that realize the equality case in the inequalities, written with optimal constants. The method extends recent results on critical Caffarelli–Kohn–Nirenberg inequalities. Using heuristics given by a nonlinear diffusion equation, we give a variational proof of a symmetry result, by establishing a rigidity theorem: in the symmetry region, all positive critical points have radial symmetry and are therefore equal to the unique positive, radial critical point, up to scalings and multiplications. This result is sharp. The condition on the parameters is indeed complementary of the condition that determines the region in which symmetry breaking holds as a consequence of the linear instability of radial optimal functions. Compared to the critical case, the subcritical range requires new tools. The Fisher information has to be replaced by Rényi entropy powers, and since some invariances are lost, the estimates based on the Emden–Fowler transformation have to be modified.
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2017
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: `https://hdl.handle.net/11311/1015186`