Based on rotational dynamics measurements carried out with isomorphic co-crystals formed by halogen-bonding (XB) between tritylacetylene halides (TrX) and diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (dabco), we were able to distinguish the sources of the enthalpic and entropic components in the rotational free energy barrier. We describe the formation of the 1:1 co-crystals (TrX···N(R)3N) obtained from 1 equiv of dabco and 1 equiv of either TrI or TrBr, respectively, to give 4a and 4b instead of the potential 2:1 complexes. The co-crystals were prepared by solvent evaporation and mechanochemical synthesis. No co-crystal with TrCl was obtained, reflecting the weaker nature of the TrCl···NR3 interaction. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirmed structures that resemble a spinning top on a tripod and revealed that the two XB co-crystals are isomorphous, with slightly different C-X···NR3 (X = I, Br) distances and packing interactions. Quadrupolar-echo (2)H NMR experiments with (2)H-labeled samples showed that fast rotation of dabco in these co-crystals follows a six-fold potential energy surface with three lowest energy minima. Variable-temperature (1)H NMR spin-lattice relaxation (VT (1)H T1) data revealed rotational dynamics with indistinguishable pre-exponential factors and small but distinguishable activation energies. The activation energy of 4b (Ea = 0.71 kcal mol(-1)) is the lowest reported in the field of amphidynamic crystals. Using the Eyring equation, we established that their activation entropy for rotation is small but negative (ΔS(⧧) = -3.0 cal mol(-1) K(-1)), while there is almost a 2-fold difference in activation enthalpies, with 4a having a higher barrier (ΔH(⧧) = 0.95 kcal mol(-1)) than 4b (ΔH(⧧) = 0.54 kcal mol(-1)). Analysis of the rotator cavity in the two co-crystals revealed subtle differences in steric interactions that account for their different activation energies.

Rotational Dynamics of Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane in Isomorphous Halogen-Bonded Co-crystals: Entropic and Enthalpic Effects

CATALANO, LUCA;TERRANEO, GIANCARLO;METRANGOLO, PIERANGELO;
2017

Abstract

Based on rotational dynamics measurements carried out with isomorphic co-crystals formed by halogen-bonding (XB) between tritylacetylene halides (TrX) and diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (dabco), we were able to distinguish the sources of the enthalpic and entropic components in the rotational free energy barrier. We describe the formation of the 1:1 co-crystals (TrX···N(R)3N) obtained from 1 equiv of dabco and 1 equiv of either TrI or TrBr, respectively, to give 4a and 4b instead of the potential 2:1 complexes. The co-crystals were prepared by solvent evaporation and mechanochemical synthesis. No co-crystal with TrCl was obtained, reflecting the weaker nature of the TrCl···NR3 interaction. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirmed structures that resemble a spinning top on a tripod and revealed that the two XB co-crystals are isomorphous, with slightly different C-X···NR3 (X = I, Br) distances and packing interactions. Quadrupolar-echo (2)H NMR experiments with (2)H-labeled samples showed that fast rotation of dabco in these co-crystals follows a six-fold potential energy surface with three lowest energy minima. Variable-temperature (1)H NMR spin-lattice relaxation (VT (1)H T1) data revealed rotational dynamics with indistinguishable pre-exponential factors and small but distinguishable activation energies. The activation energy of 4b (Ea = 0.71 kcal mol(-1)) is the lowest reported in the field of amphidynamic crystals. Using the Eyring equation, we established that their activation entropy for rotation is small but negative (ΔS(⧧) = -3.0 cal mol(-1) K(-1)), while there is almost a 2-fold difference in activation enthalpies, with 4a having a higher barrier (ΔH(⧧) = 0.95 kcal mol(-1)) than 4b (ΔH(⧧) = 0.54 kcal mol(-1)). Analysis of the rotator cavity in the two co-crystals revealed subtle differences in steric interactions that account for their different activation energies.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11311/1012947
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